Updated: Mar 1
Cardiac and neural problems are the start of many disorders. The body needs the heart and brain to function correctly. Through the unison of different technologies, Rescue Wrist aims to reduce the damage made by neural and cardiac abnormalities. Innovating EDA and ECG technology unite to form a bracelet that “has it all”. Monitoring the body and receiving help has never been easier.
This article summarizes an innovation developed by Julieta Valdes and Raquel Paz Bergia to help patients with a vast amount of neural and cardiac abnormalities.
What is RescueWrist?
Rescue Wrist is the interconnection between neural and cardiac monitoring utilizing EDA and ECG technology. This simple bracelet helps patients with a history of medical problems to be able to receive care faster and more efficiently. Rescue Wrist is active day and night, ensuring that medical help is provided at any time. It has a 48-hour battery life and includes two batteries. These can be switched at any time to ensure appropriate monitoring. In the case of forgetting, the app lets the patient know when they have only 12, 6, 3, and 1 hour remaining, ensuring that the patient changes their battery.
This would help patients with neural damage and disorders because there hasn’t been this sort of tracking before. People with a probability to have a stroke have a 14% chance of it occurring in their sleep, with the Rescue Wrist they would reduce the probabilities of death in their sleep. Epileptic Seizures affect 3.4 million people worldwide, and it is estimated that around 70% of active patients could live seizure-free if they were diagnosed within 3 hours of a seizure. Rescue Wrist could help these people gain the access to a health professional in less time, allowing the survival rates to increase and the diagnosis process to be faster.
Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States, accumulating to 659,000 people each year or 1 death every 36 seconds. Costing the government about $363 billion, heart disease is responsible for 1 out of 4 deaths. With 393,872 of said deaths being from sudden cardiac arrest, 70% of sudden cardiac arrests happen at home, coining its name of “sudden.” Out of all of those hundreds of thousands of deaths, only 38% of those cases were witnessed by a bystander and 12.7% by an EMS provider, leaving the person to die alone without anyone to provide aid in more than half of these instances.
Neurological consequences from SCA or heart attacks can also be mitigated by Rescue Wrist. 80% of SCA patients and 50% of patients who have experienced a heart attack also have brain damage. This could be reduced if the patients are taken to emergency care services faster and with knowledge about the background behind their cardiac arrest or heart attack.
The Technology: Electrocardiogram
Being the simplest form of an electrical heart evaluation, the electrocardiogram is taken by placing electrodes in certain points of the chest and limbs, collecting data about the heart’s rhythm. Electrocardiograms, while not performed in routine medical check up, are extremely accurate (90.4%) and effective, detecting up to 94% of electrical abnormalities. The accuracy, practicality, and effectiveness are unlike any other electrical analysis test used in modern cardiology.
The Technology: Electrodermal Activity
EDA is a measuring tool of the electric signals of the body in response to sweat secretion. EDA signals measure the electoral signals radiating from the body. It utilizes technology that tracks ER-SCR, also known as Event-Related Skin Conductance Response. An increase in the levels of sweat for an individual is indicated by an increase in the ions present on the skin.
The presence of many ions can increase the electric conductance of the skin. An epileptic seizure is a transient occurrence of signs or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain. A study conducted showed epileptic activity did the following: HR ↑⇒ SpO2 ↓⇒EDA ↑. A combination of EDA and ECG scans increases the recognition of neonatal seizures (a condition of recurring seizures in babies), and therefore it has a high chance of applying to children and adults.
A summary of a report conducted surrounding patients in the vegetative states showed how people's brains had a different activity based on the level of brain damage. Those with no damage had a high amount of brain activity, while those completely vegetative had little to no brain activity. Even though patients considered vegetative are not considered brain dead, it has been proven that they do not experience any electrodermal activity recorded with an EDA. EDA trackers can be used to regulate and track the progress of brain activity after the formation of the disorder
Rescue Wrist is connected to an app service that has all your medical history, allergies, and medications. The app stores all the cardiac rhythms and neural patterns that have occurred in the last 30 days. It keeps track of all the personalized abnormal rhythms.
When a patient connects their bracelet to the app, they are asked to explain their medical history and medical diagnosis’. This allows the app to know where their usual heart rhythms and neural patterns should be. However, during the first month, the app tracks all the data to ensure it makes the parameters as personalized as possible. These parameters will be used in the future to determine when a patient is in an emergency and when they are not. During the first month, the app defines any abnormality within their diagnosis as an emergency. The patient is responsible for deactivating the emergency and stating that they are alright.
The app requires the following information for the medical ID feature: name, sex, date of birth, blood type, height, weight, medical records, medications, and allergies. When the patient downloads the app, they need to define all of the required questions, as well as at least two emergency contacts.
The app stores and tracks all the heart and brain patterns in the first month, after that, it only records the abnormal rhythms. On the app, one only has access to the last 31 days. However, a patient, and emergency services, can access all the data recorded by Rescue Wrist online with the patient’s medical ID number.
If a signal that is not deemed to fit between the user’s “normal” ranges is detected, the app activates what is called “Emergency Protocol.” This protocol activates a series of steps that can only be triggered during events such as a sudden cardiac arrest, stroke, heart attack, etc. When RescueWrist’s emergency protocol is activated, both the app and the bracelet allow the user to turn off the protocol in a matter of 30 seconds, given that the emergency is in fact, not an emergency at all. If the user does not react within 30 seconds, the alarm can still be disabled through the app, and it will notify dispatchers of the false trigger as well.
If either alarm is not disarmed in a true case of emergency, the app will send the user’s location to emergency dispatchers using the GPS feature on the bracelet. After the emergency protocol is activated, the bracelet's screen will show the user’s medical ID information such as blood type, age, sex, and any underlying conditions as well as send this information to medical responders. Stored information and episodes from previous weeks or months' worth of medical activity can be accessed by medical personnel using the user’s personalized code in RescueWrist’s software.
Simultaneously, the bracelet will determine the care needed and allow EMS to better prepare for the scene. For example, in a case of sudden cardiac arrest, the live ECG feed from the bracelet will allow them to know that an AED is needed on site. After emergency services have been contacted, the app will also send out a customizable message to the listed emergency contacts, informing them of the user’s current location and situation. All the while, the bracelet, and mobile device will blare a sharp and loud alarm, notifying anyone in the user’s vicinity of the emergency in hopes of receiving help before medical providers arrive on the scene.
Rescue Wrist helps reduce the number of patients impacted by neural and cardiac abnormalities. It helps by tracking cardiac and neural patterns, as well as having medical records and information all in one place. In the case of an emergency, all the information is sent to the emergency responders and the emergency contacts. This helps the patients receive care faster and easier. Moreover, it helps patients get the help they need by providing the emergency responders with information about previous conditions, and other medical records.
The information shared is from research conducted by Raquel Paz Bergia and Julieta Valdes. It cannot be copied or reinvented without consent from the authors. All the ideas presented are from concepts developed by Julieta Valdes and Raquel Paz Bergia for the United States HOSA 2022 competitions. No information can be replicated unless explicit authorization is granted from the original authors.
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A friendly reminder: We've done our research, but you should too! Check our sources against your own and always exercise sound judgment.
https://ncrh.ernesthealth.com/a-heart-attacks-effect-on-the-brain/ https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/benign-familial-neonatal-seizures/ https://www.verywellhealth.com/brain-activity-after-cardiac-arrest-1298429# https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/treatment-tests-and-therapies/electrocardiogram#:~:text=An%20electrocardiogram%20(ECG)%20is%20one,ECG%20machine%20by%2 0lead%20wires https://www.cdc.gov/epilepsy/data/index.html https://imotions.com/blog/eda/ https://www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/facts.htm https://www.healthline.com/health/can-you-die-from-a-stroke#summary Schmehil, Christopher et al. “Cardiac screening to prevent sudden death in young athletes.” Translational pediatrics vol. 6,3 (2017): 199-206. doi:10.21037/tp.2017.05.04 Scrimali, Tullio et al. “Integrating electrodermal biofeedback into pharmacologic treatment of grand mal seizures.” Frontiers in human neuroscience vol. 9 252. 11 May. 2015, doi:10.3389/fnhum.2015.00252 Turkstra, L S. “Electrodermal response and outcome from severe brain injury.” Brain injury vol. 9,1 (1995): 61-80. doi:10.3109/02699059509004573 https://www.heart.org/-/media/phd-files-2/science-news/2/2021-heart-and-stroke-stat-update/2021_heart_disease_and_stroke_statistics_update_fact_sheet_at_a_glance.pdf
About the Author
Raquel Paz Bergia
Leader of The Hope Project & International Growth Ambassador (Madrid, Spain)
Raquel Paz Bergia is a writer from Spain who developed an interest in Neurology at an early age. Over the last few years, she has surrounded her studies around Cognitive Biomedical Engineering. She has a passion for learning and researching degenerative diseases and their impact on the community.
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